Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities

This review shows that restoration projects can be effective in enhancing the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity. However, conflicts can arise, for example, when restoration actions focus on a particular ecosystem service, this can lead to negative impacts on other services or biodiversity.

In addition, the trajectories of services and biodiversity in a restoration can vary and change, and recovery can be slow and incomplete. Payment for Environmental Services (PES) could provide incentives for restoration, but require the development of local and regional institutional frameworks that ensure the enhancement of biodiversity and multiple services and meet the needs of different stakeholders, integrating PES into rural development policies and programmes.

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